15 October 2009

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India – In Short History of Kashmir - Part One

India – In Short History of Kashmir - Part One

1. Cashmere is an archaic spelling of Kashmir, and in some countries it is still spelled this way.

2. In ancient times Kashmir was one of the major centres of Sanskrit scholars.

3. The Mauryan emperor Ashoka is often credited with having founded the city of Srinagar.

4. Kashmir was once a Buddhist seat of learning.

5. In the 14th century, Islam gradually became the dominant religion in Kashmir

6. In the story of Mahabharat one can find the name of Kashmir.

7. 7th century: King Lalitaditya builds the famous Sun temple and formed the city of Pharihaspura.

8. 1540: Mirz Haidar, a relative of Humayun (of the Moghul invader dynasty) conquers Kashmir. Kashmir gradually absorbed into Moghul Empire.

9. 1810-1820: Maharajah Ranjit Singh, one of the greatest rulers of India, regains Jammu and appointed his Dogra feudatory Gulab Singh to rule the State.

10. Kashmir and Jammu state was came into existence after the treaty of Amritsar. In this treaty East India Company sold Kashmir Valley to the Dogra ruler of Jammu and later the regions of Ladakh, Baltistan, and Gilgit were added to the state. The treaty was made in the year 1846.

11. Soon after Gulab Singh's death in 1857, his son, Ranbir Singh, added the emirates of Hunza, Gilgit and Nagar to the kingdom.

12. In the war of 1857 Kashmir kings fought from the side of British Empire.

13. Ranbir Singh's grandson Hari Singh, who had ascended the throne of Kashmir in 1925, was the reigning monarch in 1947.

14. In 1947, Kashmir's population "was 77 per cent Muslim and it shared a boundary with Pakistan. Few websites do not agree with this.

15. Before getting independence India and Pakistan agreed that the princely states will decide about there future. Jammu and Kashmir was one of about 565 princely States of India on which the British paramount lapsed at the stroke of midnight on August 15, 1947. While the power was transferred to the people in British India, the rulers of the princely States were given an option to join either of the two Dominions – India or Pakistan.

16. As Kashmir was occupied by Muslims Pakistan believed that Kashmir king will go with the Pakistan, but Kashmir king, Maharaja decided to remain independent.

17. Aug 15, 1947 - India gains independence. The ruler of Kashmir, Maharaja Hari Singh yet to make up his mind regarding accession.

18. The Ruler of Jammu and Kashmir, Maharaja Hari Singh did not exercise the option immediately and instead offered a proposal of Standstill Agreement to both the Dominion, pending final decision on State’s accession. On August 12, 1947, the Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir sent identical communications to the Government of India and Pakistan which read, "Jammu and Kashmir Government would welcome Standstill Agreement with Union of India/Pakistan on all matters on which there exists arrangements with the outgoing British India Government." Pakistan accepted the offer and sent a communication to J&K Prime Minster on August 15, 1947. It read, "The Government of Pakistan agrees to have Standstill Agreement with Jammu and Kashmir for the continuation of existing arrangements …” India did not agree to the offer and advised the Maharaja to send his authorized representative to Delhi for discussion on the offer.

19. Oct 22, 1947: Tribals in thousands along with Pak regular troops entered the State on October 22, 1947 from several points and indulged in bloodshed and mayhem. The bewildered people of the estate were not expecting an attack from Pakistan especially in view of the Standstill Agreement.

20. Oct 26, 1947: Hari Singh signs the instrument of accession; it is no different than the one signed by over 500 other rulers. The accession of Kashmir was accepted by the Governor General of India Lord Mountbatten.

21. Oct 27, 1947: With J&K becoming legal and constitutional part of Union of India, the troops were rushed to the state to push back the invaders and vacate aggression from the territory of the state.

22. On January 1, 1948 India took up the issue of Pak aggression in Jammu and Kashmir in UNO under Article 35 of its charter.

23. Jan 20, 1948: The U.N. Security Council in its resolution of establishes the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP).

24. After long debates, cease-fire came into operation on the midnight of January 1, 1949. Presence of Pak regular troops in the Valley was attested even by UNCIP documents (UNCIP first report)

25. During one of the debates in UN Security Council on February 5, 1948, Sher-I-Kashmir, said "aggression and not the accession is the issue." The Security Council, however, passed a resolution on plebiscite in Jammu and Kashmir subject to certain conditions. The resolution had three parts, one relating to cease-fire while the second, the most important and relevant, was a truce agreement which provided the mechanism for plebiscite. As per the agreement, Pakistan Government agreed to withdraw its troops from the State and undertake to secure the withdrawal of its tribesmen and nationals who had invaded the State. The territory thus evacuated by the Pakistani troops would be administered by local authorities under the surveillance of UN Commission for India and Pakistan.

26. Pakistan, knowing well the fate of such plebiscite at that time did not take any step to fulfill its obligations under the agreement and continued to hold the territory of the State illegally and forcefully even today

27. The issue plebiscite was linked with the condition of withdrawal of Pakistani forces and tribesmen from the occupied territory of the state which it never fulfilled, making the resolution absolutely irrelevant.

End of Part One

Read the part two of History of Kashmir -

Reality views by sm


Gouri October 15, 2009  

If only I had somebody like you to teach me the subject, I would have been a historian by now :-)
Interesting post with tantalizing revelations!

sm,  October 15, 2009  


Anonymous,  October 15, 2009  

waiting for part 2.

SG October 15, 2009  

Excellent information. The root cause of the problem, in my humble opinion, is the indecision by Maharaja Hari Singh. Had he decided to be part of either country, at that moment in time, everyone would have agreed. Period.

Samvedna October 15, 2009  

wow! this post is so informative, you take so much pains in your post that they you blog can be an education forum..I love to read your posts.

BK Chowla, October 15, 2009  

I am not sure if the role played by the British and Nehru have been taken into account.

Neha October 15, 2009  

sm, very informative post...I have always hated history...wish the books were in this format, so I would have also been an expert in this subject...waiting for ur next post...

Swatantra October 15, 2009  

I am amazed at your passion.. this is quite an information!!

sm,  October 15, 2009  

thanks,yes we can say that it was his mistake

sm,  October 15, 2009  

sure i will visit the blog. please let me know your name.

sm,  October 15, 2009  


sm,  October 15, 2009  

BK Chowla,
Nehru has put the action in the UN.
To keep it short,perfect, to the point, i have avoided many small fights,names of kings, as its not important.Important is who won

sm,  October 15, 2009  


sm,  October 15, 2009  


Insignia October 16, 2009  

So informative yet so simple. Wish we all studied History this way.
I always felt the Maharajah's indecision at that point in time caused such mayhem which continues to this day

sm,  October 16, 2009  


sm,  October 17, 2009  

thanks Happy Diwali to you