10 July 2018

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Know 6 facts about Formalin side effects Can formaldehyde,Formalin cause cancer?

Know 6 facts about Formalin side effects  Can formaldehyde, Formalin cause cancer?
Formaldehyde was first reported in 1859 by the Russian chemist Aleksandr Butlerov (1828–86) and was conclusively identified in 1869 by August Wilhelm von Hofmann

Generic Name: Formaldehyde (for MAL de hyde)
Brand Name: Formadon, Lazerformalyde
Formaldehyde (CH₂O)
Formalin is known as Formaldehyde in the USA. Other names Methyl aldehyde,Methylene glycol ,Methylene oxide,Formalin (aqueous solution),Formol ,Carbonyl hydride

It is one chemical in a large family of chemical compounds called volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The term volatile means that the compounds vaporize or become a gas at room temperature

Formaldehyde can be manufactured as a liquid (formalin) or a solid (paraformaldehyde).

Chemicals that are created with formaldehyde or have formaldehyde added to them include the following:
a- resins and lubricants
b-polyoxymethylene plastics
d-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate

It is used in the production of fertilizer, paper, plywood, and some resins. It is also used as a food preservative and in household products, such as antiseptics, medicines, and cosmetics.

Can formaldehyde cause cancer?
Although the short-term health effects of formaldehyde exposure are well known, less is known about its potential long-term health effects. In 1980, laboratory studies showed that exposure to formaldehyde could cause nasal cancer in rats. This finding raised the question of whether formaldehyde exposure could also cause cancer in humans.
In 1987, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classified formaldehyde as a probable human carcinogen under conditions of unusually high or prolonged exposure (1). Since that time, some studies of humans have suggested that formaldehyde exposure is associated with certain types of cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies formaldehyde as a human carcinogen . In 2011, the National Toxicology Program, an interagency program of the Department of Health and Human Services, named formaldehyde as a known human carcinogen in its 12th Report on Carcinogens
An NCI case-control study among funeral industry workers that characterized exposure to formaldehyde also found an association between increasing formaldehyde exposure and mortality from myeloid leukemia
In 1987, OSHA established a Federal standard that reduced the amount of formaldehyde to which workers can be exposed over an 8-hour workday from 3 ppm to 1 ppm. In May 1992, the standard was amended, and the formaldehyde exposure limit was further reduced to 0.75 ppm.

1 - What is formaldehyde?

Formaldehyde  is a colorless, flammable, strong-smelling chemical that is used in building materials and to produce many household products. It is used in pressed-wood products, such as particleboard, plywood, and fiberboard; glues and adhesives; permanent-press fabrics; paper product coatings; and certain insulation materials. In addition, formaldehyde is commonly used as an industrial fungicide, germicide, and disinfectant, and as a preservative in mortuaries and medical laboratories. Formaldehyde also occurs naturally in the environment. It is produced in small amounts by most living organisms as part of normal metabolic processes. Formaldehyde  is used to get rid of warts. It is used to treat odor and very bad sweating of the feet.

What Levels of Formaldehyde Are Present in Consumer Environments?
Formaldehyde is normally present at low levels, usually less than 0.03 parts per million (ppm), in both outdoor and indoor air. The outdoor air in rural areas has lower concentrations while urban areas have higher concentrations (due to sources such as automobile exhaust). Residences or offices that contain products that release formaldehyde into the air can have levels greater than 0.03 ppm.

2- How we get exposed to formaldehyde?
According to a 1997 report by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, formaldehyde is normally present in both indoor and outdoor air at low levels, usually less than 0.03 parts of formaldehyde per million parts of air (ppm).
Materials containing formaldehyde can release formaldehyde gas or vapor into the air. One source of formaldehyde exposure in the air is automobile tailpipe emissions.
Pressed-wood products containing formaldehyde resins are often a significant source of formaldehyde in homes.
Other potential indoor sources of formaldehyde include cigarette smoke and the use of unvented fuel-burning appliances, such as gas stoves, wood-burning stoves, and kerosene heaters.
Industrial workers who produce formaldehyde or formaldehyde-containing products, laboratory technicians, certain health care professionals, and mortuary employees may be exposed to higher levels of formaldehyde than the general public.
Exposure occurs primarily by inhaling formaldehyde gas or vapor from the air or by absorbing liquids containing formaldehyde through the skin.

3-What are the short-term health effects of formaldehyde exposure?
What happens when someone breathes too much formaldehyde?
Formaldehyde can make you feel sick if you breathe a lot of it Scientists use the words “exposed” or “exposure” to talk about how people come in contact with a substance, such as formaldehyde. Some people are more sensitive than others, so an exposure that causes no problems for some people can make other people sick or uncomfortable
Formaldehyde irritates the airways. People with asthma, bronchitis, or other breathing conditions are especially sensitive to formaldehyde When formaldehyde is present in the air at levels exceeding 0.1 ppm, some individuals may experience adverse effects such as -
a-watery eyes;
b-burning sensations in the eyes, nose, and throat;
c-coughing; wheezing; nausea;
d- skin irritation

Affected Areas/Systems and Potential adverse health effects
Eyes – Stinging, burning, or itching, Excessive tearing
Nose or throat – Stinging, burning, or itching,  Sore throat, Runny nose, Blocked sinuses, Sneezing, Cancer (human and laboratory animals)
Respiratory – Chest tightness, Wheezing, Asthma
Skin – Allergic contact dermatitis, Skin rashes, blisters, and flaky dry skin
Neurological -,Headaches, Mood changes (ire., depression, irritability),Insomnia, Attention deficit, Nausea, Impairments in dexterity, memory, and equilibrium

Formaldehyde exposure is a special concern for children and the elderly. Children may become sensitive to formaldehyde more easily, which may make it more likely they
will become sick. Elderly people may be less able to tolerate high formaldehyde exposures. If children or elderly people are in your home, it is important to reduce their
exposure to formaldehyde.

What Affects Formaldehyde Levels in Indoor Air?
Formaldehyde levels in indoor air can vary depending on temperature, humidity, and air exchange rate within the indoor space. In addition, several studies have shown that, in the
presence of ozone, formaldehyde levels increase; therefore, the outdoor and indoor ozone levels are also relevant. Formaldehyde levels in a residence may change with the season, day-to-day,
and day-to-night. Levels may be high on a hot and humid day and low on a cool, dry day. Understanding these factors is important when one is considering measuring formaldehyde

What are the Major Sources of Indoor Formaldehyde Emissions in Our Homes Today?
Measuring formaldehyde emissions from individual consumer products is difficult because a variety of products in the home can release formaldehyde or trap formaldehyde emitted from
other sources. Products with greater emissions and larger surface areas in the home will most likely have a greater contribution to indoor air formaldehyde levels. Keep this in mind when
Prioritizing the different product types below. Also, not all brands within each product type contain formaldehyde.

Wood floor finishes: Wet commercial, base- and top-coat floor finishes.
• May emit high levels of formaldehyde.
• Emissions decrease 24 hours after application.
• Finishes are not typically available to the consumer, but they can be (re-) applied by commercial floor contractors at residences or factories.
Pressed-wood and wood-based products: Pressed-wood (ire., hardwood plywood, particleboard, and medium-density fiberboard (MDF)) and wood-based products, especially
those containing UF resins, may be a significant formaldehyde source.
• Formaldehyde emissions from pressed-wood products have been reduced 80-90% from levels in the 1980’s and earlier due to mandatory formaldehyde emission standards in
California and national voluntary formaldehyde emission standards, which are described later in this booklet.
• Emissions decrease 6-10 months after initial testing.

Wallpaper and paints:
• Moderate levels of formaldehyde initially following application.
• Levels formed during the curing process may be higher than after initial application.
• Emissions are sometimes still detectable 1-3 months following application.
• Some paints are now found with low-VOC formulations.
Combustion: Cigarette smoke and the combustion of other materials, such as wood, kerosene, oil, natural gas, and gasoline, produce formaldehyde.
Other materials: Formaldehyde can be created from the chemical reaction between ozone and other VOCs during the use of personal computers, laser printers, and photocopiers.
Re-emitters: Because they are porous, products, such as carpets or gypsum board, do not contain significant amounts of formaldehyde when new. However, they may trap formaldehyde
that is emitted into the air from other products and later release it into the indoor air.

How Do You Reduce Existing Formaldehyde Levels?
The choice of methods used to reduce indoor air formaldehyde levels is unique to each situation.
The most common methods used include:
Remove formaldehyde-emitting products from your home
• Directly reduces formaldehyde levels
• Prevents other materials in the area, such as carpet and gypsum board, from absorbing and then re-emitting formaldehyde

Bring large amounts of fresh air into the home
• Increases ventilation by opening doors and windows and by using an exhaust fan(s) to air out indoor spaces.

Seal the surfaces of formaldehyde-emitting products that are not already laminated or coated
• Use a vapor barrier, such as some paints, varnishes, or a layer of vinyl or polyurethanelike materials
• Seal completely with a material that does not contain formaldehyde
• Many paints and coatings emit other VOCs when curing; therefore, ventilate the area well
during and after treatment
Install “manufactured-home,” pressed-wood products
• Made with composites meeting the Ultra Low Emission Formaldehyde (ULEF) or No Added Formaldehyde (NAF)
One method NOT recommended by CPSC is a chemical treatment with strong ammonia (28-
29% ammonia in water), which results in a temporary decrease in formaldehyde levels. We
strongly discourage such treatment because ammonia in this strength is extremely
dangerous to handle. Ammonia may damage the brass fittings of a natural gas system, adding a
fire and explosion danger.

Sources – References


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Tuesday,July 10,2018

Tags – History Facts  Formalin formaldehyde Cancer Side Effects


Renu July 11, 2018  

Its like a physics class:)