11 March 2010

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Reservation in India – A brief history

Reservation in India – A brief history -

In Indian society because of caste system, India has also followed one type of racism and because of this when Indian constitution was drafted the makers of Indian constitution introduced reservation for certain caste and people ,
Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes

If we will check the records in the year 1858 also British People knew how to divide and rule India, and with this policy very intelligently they kept dividing India on name of Religion, Caste and sub caste.

But the tragedy of Mother India is that, when British People left they handed over the India to such people who changed nothing what was started by British, Indian leaders and politicians kept doing same things  ruling India with the same rules and principals of British King.

British people gave us few good things and few bad things.

Bad list or  bad things like quota system ,division on the basis of caste and religion , British rulers introduced that to safeguard their rule on India, but our Indian rulers also adopted same policy and ideas to create their own family rule forever in India .

Before Independence as well as after Independence also the sad story is that we never got any opposition party who wanted to change this.
And Introduce reservation in everything in India on the basis of collective salary of family.

All political parties know that divide and rule policy based on castes and religion will make them rich, will always help them hide their corruption or  bad deeds and they are following it religiously

Today now in India this has become permanent method to give reservation on the basis of caste and religion to get more votes and no one has authority and powers to stop this.

Let’s know the history of Reservation –


In India reservation was given to people before Indian independence also when India was ruled by British people.


Year 1882 - Hunter Commission appointed. Mahatma Jyotirao Phule made a demand of free and compulsory education for all along with proportionate reservation/representation in government jobs.


In the year 1902 , Chatrapati Sahuji Maharaj, Maharaja of Kolhapur in Maharashtra


Introduced reservation in favor of backward classes to eradicate poverty and give them chance to participate in the state administration.


The notification of 1902 created 50% reservation in services for backward classes/communities in the State of Kolhapur. This notification is the first Govt. Order providing for reservation for the welfare of depressed classes in India.


Because of caste system millions of families in India got ill treatment and no opportunities to rise in society.


1908-Reservations were introduced in favor of a number of castes and communities that had little share in the administration by the British.


1909- Provisions were made in the Government of India Act 1909 commonly known as the Morley-Minto Reforms


1919 - Provisions were made in the Government of India Act 1919


1921-Madras Presidency introduces Communal G O in which reservation of 44 per cent for non-Brahmins, 16 per cent for Brahmins, 16 per cent for Muslims, 16 per cent for Anglo-Indians/ Christians and eight per cent for Scheduled Castes.


1935-Indian national congress passes resolution called Poona Pact to allocate separate electoral constituencies for depressed classes.


1935 - Provisions in Government of India Act 1935.


1947-India obtained Independence. Dr. Ambedkar was appointed chairman of the drafting committee for Indian Constitution.


26/01/1950-The Constitution of India came in force.


1951 - In the case of State of Madras Vs. Smt. Champakam Dorairanjan AIR 1951 SC 226 Court has pronounced that caste based reservations as per Communal Award violates Article 15(1).


1st constitutional amendment (Art. 15 (4)) introduced to make judgment invalid.


1953-Kalelkar Commission was established to assess the situation of the socially and educationally backward class.


1963 - Court has put 50% cap on reservations in the case of M R Balaji v Mysore AIR 1963 SC 649.


Tamil Nadu (69%, under 9th schedule) and Rajasthan 68% exceeded this limit.


1979-Mandal Commission was established to assess the situation of the socially and educationally backward. 1980-the commission submitted a report, and recommended changes to the existing quotas, increasing them from 22% to 49.5%.As of 2006 number of castes in Backward class list went up to 2297 which is the increase of 60% from community list prepared by Mandal commission.


1990-Mandal commission recommendations were implemented in Government Jobs by Vishwanath Pratap Singh.


1991-Narasimha rao Government introduced 10% separate reservation for Poor among Forward Castes.


1994 Supreme court advised Tamilnadu to follow 50% limit


1995-Parliament by 77th Constitutional amendment inserted Art 16(4) (A) permitting reservation in promotions to the Schedule Castes and Schedule Tribes.


2005 August 12 - The Supreme Court delivered a unanimous judgment by 7 judges on August 12, 2005 in the case of P.A. Inamdar & Ors. Vs. State of Maharashtra & Ors.declaring that the State can't impose its reservation policy on minority and non-minority unaided private colleges, including professional colleges. 2005-93rd Constitutional amendment brought for ensuring reservations


To other backward classes and Scheduled castes and Tribes in Private Educational institutions. This effectively reversed the 2005 August Supreme Court judgment.


9th March 2010 - Women Reservation Bill passed in the Upper house, Rajya Sabha.

The above time line is not complete and detailed I have tried to put only important points in this reservation history of India.

Reality Views by sm -

Like this Reservation in India is given on the basis of caste, sub caste and religion, and political parties are using this method to get the votes.

Now we Indians can not change this without revolt and today revolt is not possible and not good for India , so better is Indians should learn to ask the political parties and as well as tell them we want reservation in everywhere only based on the collective salary of family not caste or religion.
What ever may be the caste or religion, he is Indian first and if he is Indian first and poor and needy he should be given Reservation Benefits.

This way only real and need people of India will get the benefits of reservation otherwise the creamy layer people of India will continue to enjoy all the benefits and we will keep fighting on issue like we need reservation or not .

Let’s accept the fact that we need reservation and we have to see that Reservation reaches to poor and needy families.

For political gains and votes political parties will keep the Ghost of Reservation alive forever, so it is better we Indians keep an eye and see that the reservation benefits are going to real and needy persons of India based on the economic status of family not the rich class of Indians who became rich using reservation.

Always Support and Demand Economic Reservation in Every Field
Always ask political parities and leaders why they do not support economic reservation, when it will help every poor and needy Indian.

Reality views by sm -


Maya March 11, 2010  

i dont know what to say about this since its very complex.. reservation is against democracy..
but then the cast system has deep roots which only reservation can uproot. May be we cud do way with reservation after next 20 years.. till then we need to give chance to those people who have suffered 1000's of years of ill treatment because of the cast system...

Bikram March 11, 2010  

Not a good idea .. the thing is that if we give something it is taken for granted .. and who will DARE to take it back after 20 years ..

what needs doing is Gving Free education and if they are good then they can compete with the rest .. Why should I who got a high ranking in entrance exam .. make way for someone who is thousands of place below me .. but just because its a reserved seat or whatever they should get the oppurtunity ... NO ...

i dont think this will ever go away

sm,  March 12, 2010  

Uncommon Sense,

sm,  March 12, 2010  


Admin March 16, 2010  

Very useful and informative. Thanks for sharing!

sm,  March 18, 2010  


Anonymous,  September 14, 2010  

The main idea of the framers of indian constitution when they introduced reservation was to uplift the backword class but now waht we can see is that reservation is given to people who doesn't deserve it,in most of the colleges reservation seats are occupied by financially sound people,reservation should be based on financial status of the candidate and grants should be given only to the students who needs it.

SM September 15, 2010  


Anonymous,  November 09, 2010  

reservation should be given to talent regardless of who the student is. then only the country can improve.instead of sayin'' get low marks but still get a chance'' its better if you provide free education and reserve it for the poor classes and train them and encourage them ,, but for HEAVENS SAKE dont pamper them!! real talent should come out ,, not reservation fellows coming out with 40% pass!!
waddaya guys say??

Anonymous,  January 23, 2011  

When these bloody anti-reservationists are able to buy reservation on the basis of paying money earned by illegal means, do not cry for it whether it will be in education or Govt jobs. They call their duffer piglets as talented prepared in the highly paid coaching institutions and after getting job by hook & crooks, they indulged in financial scams of billions,is that what u call their bloody talent?

sm,  January 23, 2011  

Please read article again.

Ashish Vijayvergiya,  April 19, 2011  

I support what all has been said in the above article. I feel there should be no reservation not so at all, but in case its very much required, then it should be given to the less priviledged people and less priviledged people cannot and cannot be identified by their SURNAME.

sm,  April 19, 2011  

Ashish Vijayvergiya,,

Ritesh July 04, 2011  

I think resrvations should be made because India has suffered from much corruption which has to be stopped.For that, all people should get their jobs so that their life goes well and they can train their children.Then India will become rid of corruption and poverty and can compete with other countries

sm,  July 05, 2011  


Anonymous,  July 15, 2011  

my comments are not very unique,but i want say some lines...We need Reservation,but only for those Indians whose are needy,who that are below the creamy layer,those who can't effort the good education for their child..

sm,  July 16, 2011  


Neha Mahawar July 18, 2011  

we would have needed these reservations if we were to be as under developed as our past had been... the times have changed.Now no caste or race is discriminated...the youngsters dnt even care to knw abt a person's caste... reservations were an excellent idea for that India... today.. India has grown..and is capable of producing good population for development rather than by giving dese dam reservations...instead these reservations draw a line of these castes amongst the people... how can dis be for democracy?? how can India continue to have it??? We dnt need it any further.. the worthy will get a prize.. no need to call them in a side line and give it.. 'coz those people DON'T DESERVE IT..!!!!!

sm,  July 19, 2011  

Neha Mahawar,,

ram July 23, 2011  

as far my concern reservation should be there bcoz yet castism is not over when u move to rural area still there is discriminatin factor .sc &obc people were ill treated in past for so many yrs it will not go ,in above comments someone has wrote now castism is over but i strongly denying it ,bcoz many honour killing happening all araund india .& this is bcoz sometimes girl belong to lower class or some time boys

sm,  July 23, 2011  


Anonymous,  August 10, 2011  

reservation shud b dere coz casteism still exists today...ppl tok just about equality and creamy layer bcuz sc/st's hav deir rights reservd n nobody can harm dem...remove d reservation n dey'l b forced again 2 d depths dey came from by d very educated-eqaulists of our country...ppl r still communist n dis cant b denied...if u close ur eyes its ur wish bt dat wont change d reality...just luk at oder blogs abt reservtn n u'l c ppl swearin on sc/st's and blamed by general category ppl 4 takin deir seats...1st of ol nobody tuk deir seat...study well n u'l get admissions...2ndly stop tokin shit as v belong from d country whr sikhs ver killed in 1984 bcuz dey ver minority and muslims-lets not tok abt how many hav been killed till 2day...1st open up ur brains learn the meanin of equality...

sm,  August 10, 2011  

Keep reading and thinking

Anonymous,  August 12, 2011  

Giving reservation to the backward is the least our society can do to cover the worst they had to go through for 1000`s of years. Non reservation class is tired of taking this burden in just three to four decades without even realising what this mean for the backwards for 100's of decades.

I will give you a small example. Just suppose one is searching for a good groom/bride for his/her children. Would you ever even think of a backward? The answer is never! An uneducated will be proffered than a graduate backward because he is superior by birth.

A peon does not respect a backward IAS. This is the world we live in.

You feel scared and insecure to tell other about your own self no matter what level you have achieved in life.

To all who demand to end the reservation must go to supreme court and first sign an affidavit that if in future their children want to marry a backward. They will not have an objection.

sm,  August 12, 2011  

@Anonymous thanks.One solution is first India has to introduce economic reservation.

Anonymous,  August 17, 2011  

Being a SC, I know the humiliation in friends home i faced. Some parents told me not to come to their homes. Some throw food in my plate. Can a Brahmin treat a Schedules Caste same as a fellow Brahmin. But I support reservations based on Caste and Economy. Please remove the case of untouchability from the minds of people.
When some people suffered for thousands of years because of poor and unbiased crueality, cant some body suffer for 50 years to help them grow.

Punit Mudgal : a very proud Indian September 01, 2011  

why we are against reservation ????


Punit Mudgal : a very proud Indian September 01, 2011  

Tum kya sunder desh banaoge?

Desh mangata hai parivartan

Aur tum maang rahe aarakshan

Aarakshan k bal par aage badh kar kaya kar paoge

Tum kya sunder desh banaoge?

Jaati ka aarakshan manga

Dharmon ka aarakshan manga

Lingbhed arkshan paakar kaisa desh banaoge?

Tum kya sunder desh banaoge?

Shiksha mein arkshan paya

Sewa mein arkshan paya

Kaun si sewa karke tum sunder desh banaoge?

Aarkhan hi lena hai toh budhdhi se aarakshan lo

Aao baitho karo saamana pratibha se aarakshan lo

Aarakshan se tum bane vaidh ho tum kya dard mitaoge!!

Tum kya sunder desh banaoge?

Aarkshan k bal par jab khud ko tumne guru bana dala

Aarakshan ki sidhi chdkar abhiyanta ka pad pa dala

Kaun sa yantra laga k tum ooper desh uthaoge?

Tum kya sunder desh banaoge?

Dekh lena ik din desh ko mere aarakshan daanv kahyega

Ya phir badlega naam desh ka aarakshan desh kahayega

Aise hi pad cinhhon par chal, tum kaya kar paoge

Tum kya sunder desh banaoge?

Anonymous,  September 09, 2011  

I think proud Indian are only those who are anti-reservation and not those who are pro-reservation. What a sick and casteist attitude. But this is definately not going to harm reservation in any sense. JIS DIN ISS DESH MAIN RESERVATION KHATAM KARNAYE KII BAAT HOGI US DIN ISS DESH MAIN TOFAAN AA JAYAGA. PRORESERVATIONIST ARE MORE IN NUMBER.

Anonymous,  September 11, 2011  

1. More than 2500 years of discrimination has laid barren groups of people without education, hygienic and healthy living. People who were not given education could now sense a freedom that could come up to them. But then, they are not ready for the new responsibilities. At the dawn of independence and even before, forward looking leaders could see that the country cannot progress unless the masses primarily comprising of these people could progress. Even today, the growing GDP has really no impact on the people who are going hungry to bed every night.
2. If 60 years of reservation could be so difficult to withstand and could make life miserable for the so-called forward classes, imagine what 2500 years of subversion with absolutely no choice and absolutely no voice, would have to done a human race.
3. The government at the time of independence could bring in only reservations on the education front and in a majority of the government offices. This does not have any significance beyond certain levels in government offices, military and other areas of work. Similarly, it does not have any significance when it comes to private industry which is the largest employer today. Contrast this with the affirmative action in other countries, say UK for instance. The population racial spread should match with the industry spread. That is to say, if the race is occupying 30% of the population, the same set or about the same percentage of people should be in every industry such as banking, media, etc., at all levels of management. If a company, be it private or public, if for any reason or not finding themselves in line with this concept will have to pay an additional tax to the government. Please see ethnic quotas in the UK's affirmative action bill.

4. It has never been possible for India to bring any standard reservation policy with a clear cut end marked out. This is so because, people who are anti to reservations and who occupy the top positions in the hierarchy are not allowing census to be taken on a caste basis. Secondly, data pertaining to caste wise hierarchical data is not specifically made available for public consumption. The current census looks forward to make good this lacuna at last.

5. Reservations can end only when the population map of the castes match with the caste wise industry map. That is if a specific group forms 12% of the population, then they should be occupying more or less the same percentage in, say, banks at all levels, in top management map, middle management map and in lower levels as well. Only then, it can be said that equality has reached. Instead if you take media today, be it government or otherwise, one would only find the upper class domination and naturally, no other idea gets spread as well.

SM September 11, 2011  

thanks. you have learn and understand lot.
Support economic reservation that is only best option forget about the Caste and read the Biography of Baba Saheb.

Anonymous,  December 28, 2011  

dekho friends,

hindi me samjhata hu,matra bhasa me....

I am totally against caste base reservation bcoz..

kuch logo ne likha hai hamne 250 saal se saha hai...matlab aap ko ye bura lagta hai aap sc/st/obc ke naam se jaane jate hai,to aaj bhi wahi cheez ho rahi hai aap apne ko khud hi backward maan rahe ho...aap keh rahe hai ki ek brahman ki ladki se aap ki shaadi nahi ho sakti...to reservation lene se aap kya backward nahi honge..balki usme to aap ne khud ko backward maana hai..aaj pura desh jaatiwaad ko bhulne ke liye tyaar hai..aap kis duniya me hai..aaj hum kahi thele par khuch khaate hai ,to uski jaat puchte hai..nahi naa...

reservation ka aaj fayada kis ko ho raha hai??
main ek example se samjhaa hu..aap IAS ka paper le lijiye..usme reservation hai..aaj IAS ka paper without coaching nikalna impossible hai..to kya ek garib parivaar ke sc ka bacha IAS ki soch sakta hai... nahi...kyonki uske pass itna paisa nahi hai ki wo delhi me rehkar IAS ki coaching kare...to iska fayada use mila????
fayada kisko mila ...ek amir parivaar ke sc ke bache ko...wo to bichara jaisa tha waisa hi reh gaya...
amir sc aur amir ban gaya...ye to baat hai amir sc garib sc ka hak maar raha hai..rajasthan me aap jayiye..waha total police me st bhare pade hai..baap dig ,beta sp,chacha SDM,bahu aayi wo bhi SI..wah kya baat hai zamane ki

sc /st ka reservation ek baar phir bhi samjh aaye lekin OBC ko..why??????
choudhary are very rich people in country??
why are they getting reservation??????

aj govt. department me kaam kyo nahi hota ?
kyonki waha officer and clerk etc. ke beech talmel nahi bethta..aap aaj kisi bhi govt. department me jao waha sirf subah se shaam tak jaatiwaad chalta hai...gutbaazi hoti hai isse kya hota hai..janta pareshaan hoti hai..

aaj hamara desh aage kyo nahi badh raha hai..bcoz hamara sara talent to US me reh raha hai..aaj ek sachai batata hu...US ki har badi company me 35% indians kaam karte hai.....
wo log talented hai..they love our country..wo desh ke liye bahut kuch karna chate hai..par govt..department me wo atmosphere hi nahi hai kaam karne ka ..think for a minute aaj drdo me 100 vacancy nikali hai scientist ki...usme le dekar 30-40 general aayega,30-40 obc baaki sc st.
ab jab wo kaam karenge to pehle hi 4 group to govt. ne hi bana diye unke..how can they work togethr??? tell me..desh ka to ho gaya bantadhaar...
tumhe ek cheez aur bata du..abhi ke jo scientist hai wo pehle ke lage hai..ab aaj ke time par govt. ke pass n to ache engineer hai n doctor hai n scientist hai..aane wale 20 sall baad dekhna india ka kya haal hoga????
baat sirf ek naukri ki nahi hai ..yadi tumhe sc st ko fayada dena hai to waise hi paise baat do .apne raja uncle 1.76 lakh crore kha gaye..nahi to 1.76 crore sc st me baar dete yeh paise..they will be reach...
Why the so much muslims people r involved in dirty business?
answer is reservation....
main ek aise desh ki kalpana karta hu jaha talent ki kadra ho..kyonki yadi general ka banda talented hai to wo to kahi pvt. me kama ke kha lega>....desh jaaye bhad me uski taraf se..lekin desh ka kya hoga sochna ek barr.....
neta hame baat rahe hai aur hum batte jaa rahe hai..pehle sc/st me baata ,ab obc bana diya thode dino me pata nahi kya bana denge..
OBC candidate yaad karo jab tumhe reservation nahi tha to kitni burai karte the sc/st walo ki..lekin ab chup hai.....don't think about urself..think about the future of country....

Janahitwadi February 05, 2012  

@BikramReservation system in India is for last 1000s of years. There is a change since beginning of 20th century. It was changed from upper castes to lower castes. To remove caste system the solution could be inter-caste marriages and reservation based on one of the parents, grandparents' caste. Person shall not have any caste if child of inter-caste marriage. This way child of a person becomes eligible if married to a person from caste to which reservation is applicable. This may take say 100 years but with present system of reservation caste system is getting stronger and till eternity this problem would continue.

SM February 05, 2012  



As you wrote about inter caste marriage please go through this post.
Below is the link.

Understanding Inter Caste Marriage Status of the Children, Married Male, Married Female and Reservation


Anonymous,  August 11, 2012  

Main samjha ta hu aaj jo log kah rhe hai ki ham jatiwaad
Ko bulana chahate oh glat hai kuki ohh JATIWAAD KO NHI RESARTATION KO KATAM KARNA CHAHATE HAI ahh hindu ke kuchh varg hai.
Kyu ki ohh nhi chahte hai ke unake brabar koi bedhe.

Someone usless August 16, 2012  

@BikramThere are ways to get rid of reservation, and eventually one of it will work. In my opinion, instead of asking to remove reservation, the reservation victims should ask for financial compensation equivalent to losses due to reservation victimization.
This demand will eventually get power as more and more people become victims of reservation. Alternatively, all non-reserved classes should unite and ask for equal reservations for them. Vote bank politicians just can't ignore them.

razer December 14, 2012  

@Anonymousi agree with you.all brothers are same .


In my view
Whenever good friends fight with each other, after sometimes they start realize and tried to find the reason for fight..
after that they compromise each other and remain be a good friend.
But in the case of reservation we are only taking about problem i.e reservation. We not at all try to find the reason.

Reason for introduction of reservation is caste.

so the people who talks reservation is not need nowadays. They must understand caste is also not need but it followed about 2500 years.

So, my brothers and sisters please understand

Reservation gives education,job and life to someone
Caste kills the people

the only way to abandon reservation is by abandoning the CASTE SYSTEM

so lets start to love people not caste and make better india

RSR,  August 29, 2015  


do you have any sense..
we are talking about reservations which are given by cast base,

cast means SC,ST and OC will come.. not brahmins,vyshays,shudras,khatriyas..

first you know about the indian system..then come and tell..this system is comming from lakhs of years ago..

and cast system introduced by british dogs..and our political leaders are following this for encouraging corruption from your sides..

and finally this way you people are thinking ..you are telling about girls..stop your cheap tricks ..

how we are allow you to marry a girl from this?

Unknown September 16, 2016  

Wrong history of reservation in free India has been narrated. There is no religion based reservation in independent India. It is misleading.

SM September 21, 2016  

@Imteyaz Husain

The Constitution (Scheduled Castes) Order, 1950 pertaining to Article 341 has been providing religion-based reservations for more than 60 years now. The controversial 1950 order whose legality has been repeatedly questioned states, “No person who professes a religion different from the Hindu, the Sikh or the Buddhist religion shall be deemed to be a member of a Scheduled Caste.”

Initially, the order only recognised Scheduled Castes from the Hindu religion. Thereafter, it was amended twice in 1956 and 1990 to include Sikhs and Buddhists, respectively. The question to be asked is: Can’t a Muslim, Christian, Jain or Parsi be a Scheduled Caste? Do Hindus, Sikhs and Buddhists have a monopoly over being Scheduled Castes?

Directly or Indirectly one or other way religion will always come whenever we will give reservation to some one in India.

Anonymous,  October 01, 2016  

Exactly well said

Unknown January 17, 2017  

very good punit .... u r really a proud indian

SM January 19, 2017  

@shivam patil

Joshi Pastor,  April 08, 2017  

This is immature argument to demolish the 'Reservations " based on caste system. For thousands of years the Hindu upper castes prohibited education,property, culture and legal rights to the down trodden castes such as Sudras and Panchamas (the untouchables) which caused them to lead severe poverty. So the reservations to the poor down trodden castes are needed until last one in those castes lives courageously and sumptuously . Try to see the actual situations of the down trodden around you.

Unknown April 12, 2018  

If your child want to marry another caste's person then surely u will disagree. So, i want to know is it that easy to forget CASTE SYSTEM???

humanity April 17, 2018  

everyone wants there should be talent not cast based reservation but guys its not just about giving quota that some sc category candidate got admission although he got less marks but this is demand for giving respect giving equal oppertunity to those who haven't got right to even walk with upper cast people.how many of you raise your voice against discrimination, which is still in practise in rural areas where lower caste people have not right to celebrate their wedding normally as others do, where lower caste people have been beaten for entring into mandir masjid how many of you raise your voice when they nude the lower casts people and make their vedio and beat them for just small reasons like touching, entering religious places , celebrating wedding, if this is not against the democracy then nothing is wrong in reservation. ist raise your voice against the discrimination then debate for reservation.

Unknown August 15, 2018  

sir above information is very useful, thanks for this. please correct small mistake is -In poona pact congress reject the separate electoral and favor of Joint electoral.