20 April 2014

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In depth ZSL Edge names of top 25 Birds including 15 Indian globally endangered Birds

In depth ZSL Edge names of top 25 Birds including 15 Indian globally endangered Birds

A recent study by experts at Zoological Society of London (ZSL) and Yale University has identified 100 Evolutionary Distinct and Globally Endangered (EDGE) species worldwide shows that most of the habitats are under threat from unsustainable human activities.
Of these 15 are species from India.

Following are the names of top 25 birds are on the list on endangered species because of Human actions.

Giant Ibis - (Thaumatibis gigantea)
This species is Cambodia’s national bird, and owing to its rarity and exceptional size holds near-mythical status for bird-watchers, naturalists and conservationists.
The Giant Ibis now has an extremely small, declining population, concentrated in Cambodia. It also occurs in extreme southern Laos and has been sighted in Vietnam. Already extinct in Thailand, it is thought to be on the verge of extinction in other localities within its current range. It has been classified as critically endangered based on the likelihood of continued decline, predominantly due to the effects of human disturbance and hunting.

Photo of Giant Ibis

New Caledonian Owlet-nightjar - (Aegotheles savesi)
This mysterious species, which has not been seen since 1998
It is known only from two specimens, which are held in museums in Liverpool, UK and Italy. The bird is endemic to the island of New Caledonia, which is in the South Pacific Ocean to the east of Australia.
The bird has been classified as critically endangered as its population is unlikely to number more than 50 individuals.

Photo of New Caledonian Owlet nightjar

California condor - (Gymnogyps californianus)
Exactly how many California Condors once lived remains unknown, yet by 1981 the wild population numbered at just 21 birds.
Enormous efforts have been made to save the California condor from extinction. The first successful breeding attempt from captive-reared condor’s occuredoccurred in 2003, in Arizona.  There were several breeding attempts in CA and AZ in 2001 and 2002, but not until 2003 did a chick successfully fledge from a nest cave in the wild.

Distribution –
California, Northern Arizona, Southern Utah, United States and Baja California, Mexico.

Photo of California condor

Kakapo - (Strigops habroptila)
The nocturnal Kakapo or ‘owl parrot’ (so called because of its facial disc of owl-like whiskers) is a large, stocky, New Zealand endemic. It is the heaviest of all the parrots, usually gaining between 60-100% in body weight in preparation for the breeding season.
It is now extinct throughout its natural range, and survives only on three small, intensively managed islands following a series of successful translocations.
Dedicated conservation efforts have seen the population increase slowly to 125 individuals.

Distribution - Codfish Island and Anchor Islands off the South Island of New Zealand and Little Barrier Island of the North Island

Photo of Kakapo

Kagu - (Rhynochetos jubatus)

Distribution - Island of Grand Terre, New Caledonia

Photo of Kagu –

Bengal Florican - (Houbaropsis bengalensis)
Two thirds of the global population breed in the floodplain of the Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia; they migrate up to 100km annually to escape the floodwaters in the non-breeding season. Thousands of kilometres away in Nepal and India, there exists another population of the same species which occupies the duars and terai grasslands along the base of the Himalayas.

Total Population - Fewer than 1000 birds alive

Home Country - There are two subspecies, one occurring in India and Nepal, and the other thousands of kilometers away in Cambodia

Photo of Bengal Florican

Forest Owlet - (Heteroglaux blewitti)
The critically endangered Forest Owlet has an extremely small and fragmented population in central India.
Previously feared extinct, this species was rediscovered in 1997 in the state of Maharashtra, 113 years after the last confirmed record.

Home Country - Central India in the states of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.

Photo of Forest Owlet

Philippine Eagle - (Pithecophaga jefferyi)

The Philippine Eagle was formerly known as the Monkey-eating Eagle, as reports from natives told that the raptor preyed exclusively on monkeys. This was later found to be incorrect as more recent studies have revealed the species to prey on a variety of animals

Endemic to the Philippines, the eagle’s small, rapidly declining population has been feared close to extinction for the past 40 years.

Home Country - The islands of Leyte, Luzon, Mindanao and Samar in the Philippines.

Photo of Philippine Eagle –

Christmas Island Frigatebird - (Fregata andrewsi) –

Home County - The Christmas Island Frigatebird is the rarest endemic seabird on Christmas Island, Australia.

Photo of Christmas Island Frigatebird

Sumatran Ground-cuckoo - (Carpococcyx viridis)
This forest dwelling bird is endemic to the Indonesian island of Sumatra. It is only found in sub-montane and montane forest along the southern Barisan Mountain range, where it is estimated that there are 70-400 individuals. Whilst little is known about the species

Home Country - Endemic to the island of Sumatra, Indonesia

Photo of Sumatran Ground Cuckoo

Spoon-billed Sandpiper - (Eurynorhynchus pygmeus)
Home Country - Endemic breeder to NE Russia, but migrates through and winters in over 14 countries, primarily Myanmar and Bangladesh, in Southern and Eastern Asia

Photo of Spoon Billed Sandpiper

Northern Bald Ibis - (Geronticus eremita)
A major population crash occurred in the 1950s with the introduction of pesticides, notably DDT. It disappeared from virtually all of its existing range apart from two sites in Morocco.

Home Country - Two populations exist in the wild, one in Morocco with a relict population in Syria and the Middle East.

Photo of Northern Bald Ibis

Plains-wanderer - (Pedionomus torquatus)
Home Country - Endemic to the semi-arid lowland native grasslands of eastern Australia. Most known habitat is in the western Riverina area of New South Wales.

Photo of Plains wanderer

New Zealand Storm-petrel - (Fregetta maorianus)
The species was thought to be extinct, but in 2003 an individual was spotted off the coast of the North Island and sightings have been recorded every summer since.

Home Country - Hauraki Gulf Marine Park off the North Island of New Zealand.

Photo of New Zealand Storm petrel

Hooded Grebe - (Podiceps gallardoi)
Discovered in 1974 the Hooded Grebe is found in regions across Argentina and possibly Chile. It has experienced a decline of over 80% in the past 26 years and there are thought to be less than 1,000 left.

Home Country - Interior regions of Argentina with some records from Chile. The only known wintering grounds are on the Atlantic coast.

Photo of Hooded Grebe

White-shouldered Ibis - (Pseudibis davisoni)
This critically endangered species now survives as an extremely small and fragmented population, estimated at just 650 adults.

Home Country - Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar

Photo of White Shouldered Ibis

Maleo - (Macrocephalon maleo)
The population is estimated at somewhere between 8,000–14,000 mature individuals. The Maleo has been protected under Indonesian law since 1972 and half of the current nesting sites are within protected areas.
Home Country - Endemic to the Sulawesi and Buton islands in Indonesia.

Photo of Maleo –

Black-hooded Coucal - (Centropus steerii)
Home Country - This species is endemic to the island of Mindoro in the Philippines

Madagascar Serpent-eagle - (Eutriorchis astur)
For many years it was doubted whether the species still survived in the wild, until it was recently rediscovered by Peregrine Fund biologists after six decades of absence.

Home Country - East Madagascar

Dwarf Olive Ibis - (Bostrychia bocagei)
It had only been known from historical records and anecdotal evidence until a confirmed sighting in 1989.
Home Country - South central region of the island of São Tomé off the coast of West Africa.

Noisy Scrub-bird - (Atrichornis clamosus)
Current estimates place the population between 1,000 and 1,500 mature individuals

Home Country - Limited to a small range in southwest Australia.

Rufous Scrub-bird - (Atrichornis rufescens)

Home Country - Found in small isolated populations at high altitude in New South Wales and Queensland, Australia.

Junin Grebe - (Podiceps taczanowskii)
Home Country - Endemic to Lake Junin in the highlands of Peru.

White-collared Kite - (Leptodon forbesi)
The current population is assumed to be tiny, based on the limited area of remaining suitable habitat.

Home Country- Endemic to Brazil, occurring in the states of Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, and Sergipe.

Congo Bay-owl - (Phodilus prigoginei)
Only two records of this beautiful owl exist, both of which were of female birds. The male of the species is yet to be described.
The type specimen was found in 1951 in the Itombwe Massif in Democratic Republic of Congo. The most recent sighting occurred in 1996 on the same mountain region, confirming that the species was not extinct. Very little is known about the Congo Bay-owl’s population size

Home Country - Itombwe Massif, Democratic Republic of Congo

Photo of Congo Bay Owl

Below is the list names of  15 Indian species in ZSL-Yale University EDGE list

Bengal Florican – Top 25 list – number 6

Forest Owlet – Top 25 list – number 7

Red-headed Vulture - (Sarcogyps calvus)
In India it has been estimated that the population decreased by over 90% in just 10 years. This decline has been primarily blamed on the use of the drug Diclofenac by veterinarians.

Home country - Currently found in regions across the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia

Photo of Red Headed Vulture

Egyptian Vulture - (Neophron percnopterus)
Home Country -This species is wide ranging, and despite its name is found across Africa, south and east Europe and west Asia.

Jerdon’s Courser - (Rhinoptilus bitorquatus)
Having eluded researchers for over 80 years, the Jerdon’s Courser was rediscovered in 1986. For this reason, very little is known about the bird’s ecology.

The population is tentatively estimated at 50 to 249 adults

Home Country - Endemic to India found in Andra Pradesh.

Photo of Jerdon Courser

Lesser Florican - (Sypheotides indicus)
With the global population now estimated at just 1,500 adults

Home Country - Found in northwest India, although reports of the species also come from Pakistan and Nepal.

Photo of Lesser Florican –

Spoon-billed Sandpiper - top 25 list, no. 11

Sociable Lapwing - (Vanellus gregarius)
Once widespread and common, numbers today are a fraction of what they used to be

Home country - The lapwing breeds in Russia and Kazakhstan, migrating through the Middle East and Arabian Peninsula, to winter in East Africa, Pakistan and India.

Photo of Sociable Lapwing

Siberian Crane - (Leucogeranus leucogeranus)
The species breeds in Russia and winters in China, Iran, and formerly in India, undertaking a 5,000 km migration through seven other countries. It is found in wetland habitats throughout the year along its migratory route and at wintering and breeding sites. It is highly dependent on wetlands

Home Country - Eastern population breeds in Russia, winters in China.  The remnant population in western/central Asia is observed in Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, and Iran

Photo of Siberian Crane

Great Indian Bustard - (Ardeotis nigriceps)
The species was formerly found across the Indian Subcontinent, but is now locally extinct from 90 per cent of its original range.

Home Country - Found in India, as well as adjacent areas of Pakistan.

Photo of Great Indian Bustard

Greater Adjutant - (Leptoptilos dubius)
The global population is estimated at 800 to 1,200 mature individuals

Home Country - Found in Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam.

Photo of Greater Adjutant

White-bellied Heron - (Ardea insignis)
It was once common in Myanmar and found in many other Asian countries. Today, it is known from about ten localities in India, Bhutan and Myanmar
Home Country - Occurs in only six localities in India, two sites in Bhutan and in a few areas of Myanmar.

Photo of White Bellied Heron –

Wood Snipe - (Gallinago nemoricola)
Home Country - Bangladesh, China, India, Nepal and a number of countries in South-east Asia.

Photo of Wood Snipe –

Masked Finfoot –
Numbers are estimated at just 600 to 1,700 adults, which is a small number spread across such a large range.

Home Country - Extremely patchy distribution ranging from north-east India and Bangladesh through Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia and Indonesia.

Photo of Masked Finfoot

Christmas Island Frigatebird –
Top 25 list – number 9

Source - Edge

About Edge –
The EDGE of Existence programme is the only global conservation initiative to focus specifically on threatened species that represent a significant amount of unique evolutionary history.
The aim of the EDGE programme is to put these species on the map and catalyse conservation action to secure their future. Each year a number of the most poorly known and neglected EDGE species are selected for conservation attention.
The ultimate goal of the EDGE programme is to ensure that local stakeholders, governments, and in-country and international conservation organisations take ownership of these forgotten species and commit to ensuring their future survival.

Reality views by sm –

Sunday, April 20, 2014

Tags – List Endangered Birds Extinct Bird List


Kirtivasan Ganesan April 21, 2014  

Refer to earlier post on Purana Qila.
A cut in Mathura Road will take you to Bharatpur. Bharatpur has a bird sanctuary. You will get tremendous knowledge there.
It is a coincidence that you wrote about birds after knowledgeful Purana Qila !!