15 February 2011

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Gonorrhea acquires, steals a piece of human DNA – A first Case evidence of stealing Human DNA found

Gonorrhea acquires, steals a piece of human DNA – A first Case evidence of stealing Human DNA found

First evidence of gene transfer from human host to bacterial pathogen offers new view of evolution, disease

It's known that gene transfer occurs between different bacteria and even between bacteria and yeast cells. "But human DNA to a bacterium is a very large jump," said lead author Mark Anderson, a postdoctoral fellow in microbiology.
"This bacterium had to overcome several obstacles in order to acquire this DNA sequence."

Northwestern Medicine researchers have discovered the first evidence of a human DNA fragment in a bacterial genome – in this case, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the bacterium that causes gonorrhea. Further research showed the gene transfer appears to be a recent evolutionary event.

The gene transfer was discovered when the genomic sequences of several gonorrhea clinical isolates were determined at the Broad Institute in Cambridge, Mass. Three of the 14 isolates had a piece of DNA where the sequence of DNA bases (A's, T's, C's and G's) was identical to an L1 DNA element found in humans.

The discovery offers insight into evolution as well as gonorrhea's nimble ability to continually adapt and survive in its human hosts. Gonorrhea, which is transmitted through sexual contact, is one of the oldest recorded diseases and one of a few exclusive to humans.

An ancient disease that sounds like gonorrhea is described in the Bible, noted Seifert, who has studied the disease for 28 years. Most of his research focuses on how the bacterium evades the human immune system by altering its appearance and modulating the action of white blood cells.

In Seifert's Feinberg lab, Anderson sequenced the fragment to reconfirm it was indeed identical to the human one. He also showed that this human sequence is present in about 11 percent of the screened gonorrhea isolates.

The finding suggests gonorrhea's ability to acquire DNA from its human host may enable it to develop new and different strains of itself. "But whether this particular event has provided an advantage for the gonorrhea bacterium, we don't know yet,” Seifert said.

"The next step is to figure out what this piece of DNA is doing," Seifert said.
The paper will be published Feb. 14 in the online journal mBio.

What is Gonorrhea?
Gonorrhea is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD).
Gonorrhea is caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Anyone who has any type of sex can catch gonorrhea. The infection can be spread by contact with the mouth, vagina, penis, or anus.
The bacteria grow in warm, moist areas of the body, including the tube that carries urine out of the body (urethra). In women, the bacteria may be found in the reproductive tract [which includes the fallopian tubes, uterus, and cervix). The bacteria can even grow in the eyes.]

Symptoms of Gonorrhea –

Symptoms of gonorrhea usually appear 2 - 5 days after infection, however, in men, symptoms may take up to a month to appear. Some people do not have symptoms.

Symptoms in men include:

1.Burning and pain while urinating

2.Increased urinary frequency or urgency

3.Discharge from the penis (white, yellow, or green in color)

4.Red or swollen opening of penis (urethra)

5.Tender or swollen testicles

6.Sore throat (gonococcal pharyngitis)

Symptoms in women

1.Vaginal discharge

2.Burning and pain while urinating

3.Increased urination

4.Sore throat

5.Painful sexual intercourse

6.Severe pain in lower abdomen (if the infection spreads to the fallopian tubes and stomach area)

7.Fever (if the infection spreads to the fallopian tubes and stomach area)

Treatment -
Penicillin used to be the standard treatment, but it is not used any longer because it does not cure gonorrhea all the time.
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) also recommendeds against using a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, or levofloxacin).

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends the following treatments for uncomplicated gonorrhea.
1.A single shot of ceftriaxone (Rocephin) 125 mg or a single dose of cefixime 400 mg taken by mouth are currently the recommended antibiotic treatment

2.Azithromycin (Zithromax) 2g in a single dose may be used for people who have severe allergic reactions to ceftriaxone, cefixime, or penicillin.

Never take any medicine without consulting doctor.

Reality views by sm –
Tuesday, February 15, 2011

Source - http://www.eurekalert.org


kiran sawhney February 15, 2011  

This is some new kind of disease. I had not heard of it.

Insignia February 15, 2011  

Hmmm this gene transfer from human to bacterium is indeed freaky. Its a gaint leap for Neisseria gonorrhoeae

On a lighter note, they now could be called Homo-Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Thanks for sharing

sm,  February 15, 2011  

Kiran Bajaj Sawhney,,

sm,  February 15, 2011  


DEVIL'S BLOG February 15, 2011  

I have heard of genetic evolution for survival but stealing a human gene for survival appears as somewhat absurd

raji February 15, 2011  

nice discovery I should say .Nisseria Gonorrhea having human DNA sequences is really strange!

Jane Kaylor February 15, 2011  

sore throat is not a lot of fun its just uncomfortable and difficult to swallow.

usually, i would take the Nim Jiom Cough Syrup (www.geocities.jp/ninjiom_hong_kong/index_e.htm ) which has a thick consistency formulation. it coats the throat and includes herbs that are particularly good for that application.

i hope it works on you as well.

sm,  February 15, 2011  


sm,  February 15, 2011  


sm,  February 15, 2011  

Jane Kaylor,,

Irfanuddin February 16, 2011  

"stealing a human gene for survival".... stunning.... really !!!

Teamgsquare February 16, 2011  

stunning and informative ..........

sm,  February 16, 2011  


sm,  February 16, 2011  


sm,  February 16, 2011  

Team G Square,,

Yeast Infection February 17, 2011  

That can become breaking news such that first Case evidence of stealing Human DNA found. So this is totally news which I have heard first time.

sm,  February 17, 2011  

Amazing Facts,,

sm,  February 17, 2011  

Yeast Infection,,

Julia Kashwood May 11, 2012  

I love your web-site and article a lot. You are a wonderful journalist, and you really should write more on this topic