Eleven Facts ISRO Mangalyaan successfully enters Martian orbit
Wednesday, September 24, 2014
The Indian Space Research Organization’s Mars Orbiter Spacecraft successfully entered the orbit of Mars.
Two days ago US space agency NASA which has 16 successful Mars mission to its credit placed its Maven spacecraft in 150 km X 6250 km orbit around Mars
Only 21 of the total of 51 missions sent to Mars by various countries have been successful.
The Mars Orbiter Spacecraft was intended to be placed in an elliptical orbit spanning 423 km X 80,000 km around Mars
NASA helped ISRO with ground monitoring from three deep-space facilities after the launch.
11 Facts about India’s First Mission Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM)
Mars Orbiter Mission is India's first interplanetary mission to planet Mars with an orbiter craft designed to orbit Mars in an elliptical orbit. The Mission is primarily technological mission considering the critical mission operations and stringent requirements on propulsion and other bus systems of spacecraft.
Mission Mars Total cost - 73 million dollars or Rs. 450 crores
The cost of the “Mars Orbiter Mission” is Rs. 450 crores and the mission is planned to be completed by 2014-15
One of the main objectives of the first Indian mission to Mars is to develop the technologies required for design, planning, management and operations of an interplanetary mission.
Following are the major objectives of the mission:
Design and realization of a Mars orbiter with a capability to survive and perform Earth bound manoeuvres, cruise phase of 300 days, Mars orbit insertion / capture, and on-orbit phase around Mars.
Deep space communication, navigation, mission planning and management.
Incorporate autonomous features to handle contingency situations.
Exploration of Mars surface features, morphology, mineralogy and Martian atmosphere by indigenous scientific instruments.
MOM payloads –
Lyman Alpha Photometer (LAP) - Lyman Alpha Photometer (LAP) is an absorption cell
It measures the relative abundance of g deuterium and hydrogen from Lyman-alpha
Emission in the Martian upper atmosphere (typically Exosphere and exobase).
Measurement of D/H (Deuterium to Hydrogen abundance Ratio) allows us to understand especially the loss process of water from the planet.
Methane Sensor for Mars (MSM) -
MSM is designed to measure Methane (CH4) in the Martian atmosphere with PPB accuracy and map its sources.
Data is acquired only over illuminated scene as the sensor measures reflected solar radia-tion, Methane concentration in the Martian atmo-sphere undergoes spatial and temporal vaiations
Mars Color Camera (MCC) -
This tri-color Mars Color camera gives images & information about the surface features and composi-tion of Martian surface. They are useful to monitor the dynamic events and weather of Mars. MCC will also be used for probing the two satellites of Mars -Phobos & Deiaos.
It also provides the context infor-mation for other science payloads.
Mars Exospheric Neutral Compo-sition Analyser (MENCA) -
MENCA is a quadruple mass spectrometer capable of analysing the neutral composition in the range of 1 to 300 amu with unit mass resolution.
The heritage of this payload is from Chandra's Altitudi-nal Composition Explorer (CHACE) payload
Thermal Infrared Imaging Spec-trometer (TIS) -
TIS measure the thermal emission and can be operated duing both day and night. Temperature and emissivity are the two basic physical parame-ters estimated from thermal emission measure-ment. Many minerals and soil types have characteristic spectra in TIR region.
TIS can map surface composition and mineralogy of Mars.
Mangalyaan has a formidable itinerary: a 300-day, 780 million-kilometre (485 million-mile) journey to orbit Mars and survey its geology and atmosphere.
None of the instruments will send back enough data to answer these questions definitively,
But whatever data it will send will be useful
This is the first step of India towards MARS
Mission planning is done in conjunction with the defined mission objectives. The Mars Mission can be envisaged as a rendezvous
The rendezvous mission consist of following three phases:
Geo Centric Phase
The spacecraft is injected into an Elliptic Parking Orbit by the launcher. With six main engine burns, the spacecraft is gradually maneuvered into a departure hyperbolic trajectory with which it escapes from the Earth's Sphere of Influence (SOI] with Earth's orbital velocity + AV boost.
The SOI of earth ends at 918347 km from the surface of the earth beyond which the perturbing force on the orbiter is due to the sun only.
One primary concern is how to get the space-craft to Mars, on the least amount of fuel. ISRO uses a method of travel called a Hohmann Transfer Orbit - or a Minimum Energy Transfer Orbit - to send a spacecraft from Earth to Mars with the least amount of fuel possible.
Helio Centric Phase
The spacecraft leaves Earth in a direction tangential to Earth’s orbit and encounters Mars tangentially to its orbit. The flight path is roughly one half of an ellipse around sun.
Eventually it will intersect the orbit of Mars at the exact moment that Mars is there too. This trajectory becomes possible with certain
allowances when the relative position of Earth, Mars and Sun form an angle of approximately 44°.
Such an arrangement recur periodically at intervals of about 780 days. Minimum energy opportunities for Earth-Mars occur in November 2013, January 2016, May 2018 etc.
Salient features of the Space Segment
Mass – 1340 -3/+0 kg
Structures - Aluminum and Composite Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) sandwich construction-modified 1-1 K Bus
Mechanism - Solar Panel Drive Mechanism (SPDM), Reflector & Solar panel deployment
Bi propellant system (MMH + N2O4) with additional safety and redundancy features for MOl.
Propellant mass: 852 kg
Thermal System – Passive thermal control system
Power System - Single Solar Array-l.Bm X 1.4 m - 3 panels - 840 W Generation (in Martian
Orbit), Battery: 36AH Li- ion
Attitude and Orbit Control System –
AOCE (Attitude and Orbit Control Electronics): with MAR31750 Processor Sensors: Star sensor (2Nos),
Solar Panel Sun Sensor (SPSS)-lNo, Coarse Analogue
Sun Sensor (CASS)-9 Heads, and Inertial Reference Unit and Accelerometer Package (1RAP)
Actuators: Reaction Wheels (5Nms, 4Nos), Thrusters (22N-8Nos), 440N Liquid Engine
TTC Baseband and RF System -
Telemetry (TM) and Telecommand (TC): CCSDS Compatible
Baseband Data Handling (BDH] and
Solid State Recorder (SSR] -16+16 Gb
Communication (RF) Systems:
S-Band for both TTC and Data
Antennae: Low Gain Antenna (LGA), Mid Gain Antenna (MGA) and High Gain Antenna
PSLV-C25, the 25th mission of PSLV and 5th in the XL con Rguration, will carry the Mars Orbiter Satellite (1337 kg) into a 250 km x 23500 km elliptical orbit.
The Satellite will be further navigated to a hyperbolic departure trajectory and thereafter it traverses an interplanetary cruise trajectory before reaching the intended orbit around the Mars.
The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) caters to the requirements of launching satellites into Sun-Synchronous and Low Earth Orbits. PSLV is a Four stage vehicle with alternate Solid and Liquid propulsion stages. The booster stage along with the strap-on
motors and the third stage are solid motors while the second and Fourth stages use liquid engines.
PSLV has the capability to launch 1750 kg class satellites into 600 km Sun-Synchronous Polar Orbit (SSPO) and 1425 kg satellites into Sub-Geosynchronous TransFer Orbit (Sub GTO) oF284 km X 21000 km. The vehicle has provision to launch multiple satellites.
PSLV has successfully accomplished 2 developmental and 21 operational Missions in a row. It has established itselF as a work horse operational launcher of ISRO and has a demonstrated reliability oFO.96. Currently two variants oFPSLV are operational, namely PSLV-XL (with six extended strap-on motors attached to the First stage) and PSLV-Core
Alone (without strap-on motors). PSLV-C25/Mars Orbiter Mission employs the PSLV-XL version which has already been used in Four earlier Missions.
Mars Orbiter Mission Time Line
Nov 04, 2013
Second Stage (PS2) Propellant filling commenced.
Mobile Service Tower (MST) withdrawal upto 50m is completed.
Mandatory Checks and Preparations for Propellant filling operations of Second Stage (PS2) are in progress.
Nov 03, 2013
Propellant filling of PS4 stage and RCT completed.
Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen (MON) filling of PS4 completed at 17:00 hrs (IST).
Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen (MON) filling of PS4 under progress.
Mono Methyl Hydrazine (MMH) filling of Reaction Control Thrusters (RCT) completed.
Mono Methyl Hydrazine (MMH) filling completed.
Propellant filling operations of Fourth Stage (PS4) are in progress.
The 56 hr 30 min countdown of Mission commenced at 06:08 hrs (IST).
Nov 02, 2013
All the pre-countdown activities have been completed satisfactorily and the 56 and half hr countdown of Mission will commence tomorrow at 06:08 hrs (IST).
Pre-count down activities of Mission commenced at 08:45 hrs.
Nov 01, 2013
Launch Authorisation Board has approved & cleared the PSLV-C25/Mars Orbiter Mission launch on Nov 05, 2013 at 14:38 hrs (IST)
56 and half hr countdown for launch will begin on Nov 03, 2013 at 06:08 hrs (IST)
Oct 31, 2013
Launch Rehearsal of PSLV-C25/Mars Orbiter Mission has been completed successfully in the afternoon on Oct 31, 2013.
Launch Rehearsal of PSLV-C25/Mars Orbiter Mission commenced at 06:08 hrs (IST) on Oct 31, 2013 at First Launch Pad, SDSC SHAR.
Vehicle systems powered and health is normal.
Oct 30, 2013
Spacecraft & Launch Vehicle integrated level checks completed.
Preparations for Launch Rehearsal are under progress.
Oct 22, 2013
Spacecraft Integration with the Launcher PSLV-C25 Completed.
Heat Shield Closure Activity is completed.
Wednesday, September 24, 2014 - Mars Mission Completed
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Wednesday, September 24, 2014
Tags – Mars Mangalyaan Mission Complete
24 September 2014
Eleven Facts ISRO Mangalyaan successfully enters Martian orbit