02 June 2013

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Timeline History Know 41 Facts about Sugar How Sugar is made is it good or bad to eat Sugar

Timeline History  Know 41 Facts about Sugar How Sugar is made is it good or bad to eat Sugar

Sugar gives the body energy.  Actually, it is the only source of energy for the brain and red blood cells
But for this reason, it is not necessary to eat white sugar as nearly all plants, vegetables and fruits contain the sugar and that content of sugar is enough for our body.

Glucose is essential and can be metabolized by every cell in the body.
If we don’t get it from the diet, our bodies make it from proteins and fat.

Fructose is not essential to our functioning of our body.
The only organ that can metabolize fructose is the liver.

How many calories in a teaspoon of sugar?
A teaspoon of sugar has 15 calories.

Benefit of  White Sugar or other type of sugar is just one and only that is Taste nothing else.

It’s better to reduce the consumption of factory made White sugar and its different types.

Natural Sugar is best Sugar and Gives all benefits which we humans know and which we have to discover in future.

Annual consumption is now running at about 120 million tons and is expanding at a rate of about 2 million tons per annum.

The European Union, Brazil and India are the top three producers and together account for some 40% of the annual production.

Below are 41 facts about Sugar including history and timeline of Sugar production

Sugar is a carbohydrate.
Sugar is found naturally in most plants, but especially in sugarcane and sugar beets
Plants make sugar to store energy
Plants take in CO2 from the air and water from the ground.
The CO2 (carbon dioxide), together with water, chlorophyll and sunlight undergo a chemical process which produces sucrose (sugar) and oxygen
Chorophyll is a green substance that allows the sun's energy to be absorbed more easily and gives green color to plants.

Sugar is sucrose, a molecule composed of 12 atoms of carbon, 22 atoms of hydrogen, and 11 atoms of oxygen

Sucrose is actually two simpler sugars stuck together: fructose and glucose.

The main types of sugar are sucrose, lactose, and fructose
The names of typical sugars end with -ose, as in glucose, dextrose, and fructose.

Fruit and honey contain fructose, while milk has lactose.

The word "sugar" comes from the Arabic word sukkar, which came from the Sanskrit word sharkara.

The translations of sugar in several languages have the same etymology (origin)
For example, azucar in Spanish, sucre in French, Zucker in German, and seker in Turkish

Glucose is the type of sugar that circulates in our blood - often referred to as blood sugar.

World Sugar production –
70% sugar comes produced from Sugar Cane
30% Sugar comes produced from sugar beet

White sugar - essentially consists of pure sucrose.

Different types of White Sugar –

a)Caster sugar - crystals are tiny.

b)Icing sugar - super tiny crystals, the sugar is like dust.

c)Sugar cubes - lumps of sugar crystals stuck together with sugar syrup.

d)Preserving sugar - crystals are large

White Sugar Nutritional value per 100g (3.5oz):

a)Energy 1,619 kJ (387 kcal)
b)Carbohydrates 99.98 g
c)Sugars 99.91 g
d)Dietary fiber 0 g
e)Fat 0 g
f)Protein 0 g
g)Water 0.03 g
h)Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.019 mg
i)Calcium 1 mg
j)Iron 0.01 mg
k)Potassium 2 mg (0%)

Brown Sugar Nutritional value per 100g (3.5oz)-

a)Energy 1,576 kJ (377 kcal)
b)Carbohydrates 97.33 g
c)Sugars 96.21 g
d)Dietary fiber 0 g
e)Fat 0 g
f)Protein 0 g
g)Water 1.77 g
h)Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.008 mg
i)Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.007 mg
j)Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.082 mg
k)Vitamin B6 0.026 mg
l)Folate (Vit. B9) 1 µg
m)Calcium 85 mg
n)Iron 1.91 mg
o)Magnesium 29 mg
p)Phosphorus 22 mg
q)Potassium 346 mg
r)    Sodium 39 mg
s)    Zinc 0.18 mg

How the Sugar is made?
First sugarcane or beet is mixed with heavy syrup and then centrifuged clean.
This process is called "affination"; its purpose is to wash away the outer coating of the raw sugar crystals, which is less pure than the crystal interior.
The remaining sugar is then dissolved to make a syrup, about 70 percent by weight solids.

The sugar solution is clarified by the addition of phosphoric acid and calcium hydroxide, which combine to precipitate calcium phosphate.

The calcium phosphate particles entrap some impurities and adsorb others, and then float to the top of the tank, where they can be skimmed off.

An alternative to this "phosphatation" technique is "carbonatation," which is similar, but uses carbon dioxide and calcium hydroxide to produce a calcium carbonate precipitate.

After any remaining solids are filtered out, the clarified syrup is decolorized by filtration through a bed of activated carbon; (bone char was traditionally used in this role, but its use is no longer common). Some remaining color-forming impurities adsorb to the carbon bed.

The purified syrup is then concentrated to supersaturation and repeatedly crystallized under vacuum, to produce 'white refined sugar.

As in a sugar mill, the sugar crystals are separated from the molasses by centrifugation. Additional sugar is recovered by blending the remaining syrup with the washings from affination and again crystallizing to produce brown sugar.

When no more sugar can be economically recovered, the final molasses still contains 20–30 percent sucrose and 15–25 percent glucose and fructose.

To produce granulated sugar, in which the individual sugar grains do not clump together, sugar must be dried.

Drying is accomplished first by drying the sugar in a hot rotary dryer, and then by conditioning the sugar by blowing cool air through it for several days.

Sugar Weight Gain how happens?
When we eat food, the sugars are broken down into glucose and fructose, which are absorbed into the bloodstream.
However, fructose must then be converted into glucose in the liver.

If we consume more sugar than we do burn through activity, our liver converts the excess glucose into fat.

Some of this fat stays in the liver but the rest is stored in fatty tissues around the body.

This way sugar leads or keeps increasing weight of a person and becomes one of reason for

Sugar and Diabetes:
Consuming too much sugar in your diet can lead to obesity, which increases your risk of developing Type 2 diabetes.

Those with this condition don't produce enough insulin and aren't sensitive enough to what's produced.

Blood sugar levels aren't regulated properly leading to thirst and tiredness in the short-term and damage to blood vessels, nerves and organs if left untreated.

Heart disease:
Obesity also raises blood pressure and 'bad' cholesterol levels while lowering levels of 'good' cholesterol.
These all contribute to raising the risk of heart disease.

Fatty liver disease:
Excess sugar can be stored as fat in the liver.
The condition has been linked to an increased risk of diabetes and even liver cancer.

Tooth decay:
When we eat sugary foods, bacteria in our mouths break down the carbohydrates and produce acids that dissolve minerals in our tooth enamel.
The longer the sugar is in contact with teeth, the more damage bacteria can cause.
Left untreated this can cause pain, infection, and tooth loss.

Bad mood:
Sugary foods like chocolate, cake and biscuits have been labelled 'bad mood food' by the NHS. They can give you a quick burst of energy by causing a sharp increase in blood sugar, but when levels fall this can make your mood dip.
This cycle can make you feel irritable, anxious, and tired.

Check food labels

Read the nutritional information on food labels to see how much sugar the food contains. Remember that sugar has many different names.

The nearer the beginning of the ingredient list the sugar is, the more sugar the product contains.

Look for the 'Carbohydrates (of which sugars)' figure in the nutrition label to see how much sugar the product contains for every 100g:
 more than 15g of total sugars per 100g is high
 5g of total sugars or less per 100g is low

If the amount of sugars per 100g is between these figures, that’s a medium level of sugars.

sugar diabetes  term was used to identify disease where sugar levels were abnormally high.
sugar diabetes  is an older name for "diabetes mellitus" which is the broad term under which type 1 and type 2 diabetes are categorized.

Sugar name and understanding it

a)Glucose - Sugar in the blood  

b)Fructose - Fruit Sugar

c)Galactose – Sugar Beets

d)Sucrose - Table sugar  

e)Lactose - Milk Sugar  

f)    Maltose – Malted (barley) Beer

Sugar is used as a preservative
Sugar helps foods last longer

There is no difference in sugar produced from either cane or beet. The chemical makeup of sugar from a sugar beet and from sugar cane is identical. By the time sugar reaches the package or sugar bowl, it is 99.9+% sucrose. Cane sugar and beet sugar taste, smell and behave exactly the same.

In simple language, How sugar is processed?
The extraction or purifying process separates the natural sugar stored in the cane stalk or beetroot from the rest of the plant material.

For sugar cane, traditional processing involves
a) grinding the cane and pressing it to extract the juice

b) boiling the juice until it thickens and begins to crystallize

c) spinning and drying the crystals in a centrifuge to produce raw sugar

d) shipping the raw sugar to a refinery where it is  washed and filtered to remove the last remaining plant materials and color  crystallized, dried and packaged

Extracting beet sugar normally involves a continuous process in one facility.
The sugar beets are washed, sliced and soaked in hot water creating a sugary juice.
A series of steps similar to sugar cane processing—purification, filtration, concentration, and drying—completes the procedure.

Raw sugar is an intermediate product in cane sugar production. Produced at a sugar cane mill,
 it is a tan, coarse granulated product obtained from the evaporation of clarified sugar cane juice. The raw sugar producer ships this product to a refinery for final processing.

What is brown sugar?
Brown sugar consists of sugar crystals coated in a molasses syrup with natural flavor and color. Many sugar refiners produce brown sugar by boiling a special molasses syrup until brown sugar crystals form.
A centrifuge spins the crystals dry.
Some of the syrup remains giving the sugar its brown color and molasses flavor.
Other manufacturers produce brown sugar by blending a special molasses syrup with white sugar crystals.

What is turbinado sugar?
Turbinado sugar is raw sugar that has been refined to a light tan color by washing in a centrifuge to remove surface molasses. In total sucrose content, turbinado is closer to refined sugar than to raw sugar.
Many health food stores and supermarkets carry turbinado sugar.

The family of sugars includes:

Monosaccharides (one-molecule sugars)

a)glucose (dextrose or blood sugar)

b)fructose (levulose or fruit sugar)

c)galactose (occurs only in milk)

Disaccharides are two monosaccharides linked together:

a) sucrose (table sugar) =   glucose + fructose

b)lactose (milk sugar) =   glucose + galactose

c) maltose (malt sugar) =   glucose + glucose

History and Sugar –
In ancient times, Sugar was available for only kings and rich people.
Experts place the origin of sugar cane in the South Pacific about 8,000 years ago.
Probably native to New Guinea,the plant moved northward to Southeast Asia and India.
An officer of Alexander’s army made the first specific mention of sugar in about 325 B.C., referring to it as a reed that yielded “honey without bees.”
Sugar cane cultivation and refining spread east to China about 100 B.C.

In Europe, sugar was a scarce luxury until the 13th century when Venetian traders expanded its availability.

Portuguese enterprise brought sugar to the west coast of Africa and then to Brazil.
The Spaniards introduced sugar cultivation into their colonies in the Canary Islands, from
which Columbus brought cane to the Caribbean on his second voyage in 1493. England and France established their own refineries in the 1600s to handle sugar from the West Indies.

Europeans grew sugar beets for food and fodder, but in 1744, a German chemist discovered that the sugar from beets was the same as sugar from cane.

By 1750 there were 120 sugar refineries operating in Britain. Their combined output was only 30,000 tons per annum. At this stage, sugar was still a luxury and vast profits were made to the extent that sugar was called "white gold". Governments recognized the vast profits to be made from sugar and taxed it highly. In Britain for instance, sugar tax in 1781 totaled £326,000, a figure that had grown by 1815 to £3,000,000. This situation was to stay until 1874 when the British government, under Prime Minister Gladstone, abolished the tax and brought sugar prices within the means of the ordinary citizen.

Sugar beet was first identified as a source of sugar in 1747.

Napoleon encouraged the fledgling beet sugar industry when his struggle with England resulted in the blockade of all sugar shipments from the Caribbean.

In 1811, he issued a decree supporting a vast increase in French beet sugar production.
Within two years, the French constructed 334 factories and produced 35,000 tons of sugar. Today, most European countries engage in sugar beet cultivation and processing

What is dextrose?
Dextrose is the commercial name used for the crystalline glucose produced from starch.
Dextrose is 60 to 70% as sweet as sugar and has 4 calories per gram, the same as sugar.
Dextrose is used in many baking products like cake mixes and frostings, snack foods like cookies, crackers and pretzels, and desserts like custards and sherbets

What is corn syrup?
A commercial “corn syrup” may contain between 20% and 98% dextrose (glucose). Corn syrup may also be called “glucose syrup” in an ingredient list.
Corn syrups are a little less sweet than dextrose and have 4 calories per gram.

What is high fructose corn syrup?
High fructose corn syrup is manufactured from cornstarch. The cornstarch is ?rst converted to a dextrose-rich syrup. Using a process called isomerization these dextrose-rich corn syrups are further processed to create fructose.
The fructose is then blended with dextrose syrup to produce the commercial corn syrup containing 42%, 55% or 95% fructose.
The sweetness depends on the amount of fructose in the syrup.
Fructose is 130 – 180% sweeter than sugar. These syrups have 4 calories per gram.

The vast majority of the high fructose corn syrup containing 55% fructose is used to sweeten carbonated soft drinks and other ? avored beverages.
The generic term “high fructose corn syrup” or its acronym “HFCS” is used in food and beverage ingredient statements regardless of fructose content.

What is crystalline fructose?
Crystalline fructose is produced by allowing the fructose to crystallize from a fructose-enriched corn syrup. The term “crystalline fructose” is listed in the ingredient statements of foods and beverages using this corn sweetener. It is important to understand that the “crystalline fructose” listed as an ingredient comes from cornstarch, not fruit. Crystalline fructose is almost pure
fructose and sweeter than sugar.
 Crystalline fructose can be used in the same foods as high fructose corn syrups.

What is maltodextrin?
 Today’s commercial maltodextrin products are produced from corn, potatoes or rice. Unlike the other starch based sugar replacers, the particular starch does not need to be identi?ed on the ingredient list. Maltodextrins are not sweet and have 4 calories per gram.

 Maltodextrins are used in a wide array of foods, from canned fruits to snacks. They are primarily bulking agents that add bulk and texture to foods when fat or sugars are removed. Maltodextrins may also be an ingredient in the single-serve, tabletop packet of some
arti?cial sweeteners.

Sugar Alcohols/Polyol Sweeteners
A sugar alcohol (also known generically as a polyol) is a hydrogenated form of carbohydrate. They are commonly found in sugar-free or reduced sugar foods. The majority of sugar alcohols are made from starch. As a group, sugar alcohols are not as sweet as sugar, and average about 2.5 calories per gram.

Sugar alcohols are incompletely absorbed in the small intestine, which
results in a smaller rise in blood glucose than other sugars. Incomplete digestion
of polyol sweeteners means that they may cause, let’s just say, “stomach distress” if
they are over-consumed. With some sugar alcohols a manufacturer is required to
put a warning statement on the package “Excessive consumption may cause
gastrointestinal problems.”

What the American Diabetes Association says about the use of polyols for diabetics.

While polyol sweeteners produce a lower post-prandial glucose response [lower glycemic index] than sucrose or glucose and have lower available energy values, there is no evidence that the amounts likely to be consumed in a meal or day result in signi?cant reduction in total daily
energy intake [caloric intake] or improvement of long-term glycemia [blood glucose].”

According to the American Dietetic Association (ADA) 2004 position paper on the use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners, “Nonnutritive sweeteners (arti?cial) added to the diet have been shown to promote a modest loss of weight.” Yet ADA also stated the undeniable,
“The prevalence of obesity has increased substantially at the same time as the consumption of nonnutritive sweeteners (arti?cial) has increased.

Artificial Sweeteners Approved in the US

1.Saccharin, sold as Sweet N Low

2.Aspartame, sold as Equal or Nutra sweet

3.Acesulfame-K, sold as Sunett

4.Sucralose, sold as Splenda

5.    Neotame

Sweetener  - Times Sweeter   Acceptable  than Sugar  Daily Intake

1.Saccharin  - 200-700 -  5mg/kg bw/day

2.Aspartame -  60-220 -  50mg/kg bw/day

3.Acesulfame-K -  200  - 15mg/kg bw/day

4.Sucralose  - 600 -   5mg/kg bw/day

5. Neotame -  7,000-13,000 -  18mg/day

List 26 Sweeteners, by Name and Type

Here's the list of current and pending (not yet approved by the FDA) sweeteners. There are three basic classifications. Caloric sweeteners (of which sugar is one), artificial sweeteners (not found in nature) and sugar alcohols/polyols.

 Caloric Sweeteners

2.Glucose Syrup
3.Crystalline Fructose
4.High Fructose Corn Syrup
7.Fruit Juice Concentrates
10.Stevia (not FDA approved)

Artificial Sweeteners






6.Sugar Alcohols / Polyols






12.Isomalt (Palatinat)



15.HSH Hydrogenated Starch Hydroslsates, Maltito



Artifical Sweeteners, Not Yet Approved by FDA





Sugar Speeds the growth of yeast by providing nourishment.


Timeline History of Sugar –
Sugar cane is one of the oldest cultivated crops known to man. Sugar along with honey are the oldest natural sweeteners.

9000 BC -  Indications of primitive sugar production from sugar cane in New Guinea

2500 BC –  Experts agree the first evidence of beekeeping for honey appears in the paintings of ancient Egypt, dating from around 2500 B.C. (National Honey Board)

500 BC - The process of making sugar by evaporating juice from sugar cane developed in India.

327 BC - Alexander the Great discovers sugar cane, then spreads it through Persia and introduces it in the Mediterranean.

200 BC - Chinese Emperor T’ai Tsung sends a successful scientific mission to study sugar manufacturing from sugar cane in India. Asian traders then bring sugar to the Middle East and westward into Africa.

AD 641 - The Arabs learn to cultivate sugar cane after conquering Persia, and spread it to East Africa and southern and eastern Mediterranean. Using irrigation, sugar cane is then cultivated in Cyprus, Egypt, Morocco, Sicily and Spain, resulting in the first major European sugar source.

1493 - Columbus brings sugar cane to the New World on his second voyage.

1747 – Chemist Andreas Sigismund Marggraf uses alcohol to extract sugar from beets, but his methods did not lend themselves to economical industrial-scale production.

1751 – Sugar cane is introduced to the United States when Jesuit missionaries bring it to New Orleans, Louisiana.

1812 - Partly in response to a British blockade of France that prevented sugar cane imports from the Caribbean, Benjamin Delessert invents a sugar extraction process from beets suitable for industrial use in France.

1878 – Saccharin (benzoic sulfinide) is accidentally invented by Constantin Fahlberg, a chemist working on coal tar derivatives in a laboratory at the Johns Hopkins University.

1879 – E.H. Dyer opens the first successful sugar beet factory in the United States.

1957 - Richard O. Marshall and Earl R. Kooi invent the production of High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS)

1965 - Aspartame was accidentally invented by James M. Schlatter, a chemist working for G.D. Searle & Company.

1974 - The FDA grants aspartame approval for restricted use in dry foods, only to reverse its decision the following year when a psychiatrist claimed it caused brain damage in animals.

1975 - HFCS begins to be rapidly introduced into many processed foods and soft drinks in the U.S.

1976 - Sucralose is invented by scientists from Tate & Lyle.

1981 – Aspartame again receives FDA approval.

1993 – Florida Crystals launches natural cane sugar product line.

1998 – Florida Crystals becomes the only producer of certified organic sugar in the U.S., marketed through the Florida Crystals® brand.

1998 - The FDA approves sucralose (Splenda®), for use in the U.S.

2006 - The Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) threatens a lawsuit against Cadbury Schweppes for labeling 7 Up as "All Natural" or "100% Natural" despite containing HFCS. CSPI claimed that HFCS was not a “natural” ingredient due to the high level of processing and the use of at least one genetically modified (GMO) enzyme required to produce it.

Photo Sugar Cane and Beet Sugar making compared

Reality views by sm –

Sunday, June 02, 2013

Tags – Sugar Facts Good Bad How Sugar Made



MEcoy June 02, 2013  

ohh my, i bet I should be minimizing my use of sugar

Rajesh K June 03, 2013  

Yes, that reminds me that I should reduce the intake of sugar. Just today, I ate jillebis, ice cream and carrot halwa!

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